The rivers, Ganga and Yamuna , bordering the district on the north and south ,along with their tributaries play an important role in fashioning the topography of the district.
The levels of G.T. Road which traverses the district from north-west to south-east, illustrate the fall perhaps more clearly , the greatest height being 121.36 m. near the western border and the lowest ,105.15m.,near the eastern border, the intermediate levels being 119.48 at Aung,117.65m. at Malwa,111.25m. at Fatehpur,107.29m.at Thariaon and 105.77m. at Katoghan.
River System and Water Resources:
Ganga –> Rind
Pandu Nadi –> Bari Nadi
Yamuna –> Chhoti Nadi
Nun –> Sasur Khaderi
Geologically the district is formed by Sub-Recent to Recent rocks composed of the ordinary Gangetic alluvium. The alluvium probably rest on the north-eastward sloping basement consisting of gneisses, granites, and patches of Vindhyan rocks.
The district is not rich in economic mineral deposits. However, there are appreciable ground-water potentialities besides building materials like sand from the bank of the Ganga, gravel (moram) from the Yamuna and clays, silty clays in the alluvium suitable for brick manufacture.
The game laws in district are governed by the Wild Life Protection Act.1972, which imposes a total ban on the shooting of fast extinguishing species such as tigers and leopards.
The climate of the district is characterized by a hot summer and a pleasant winter. The cold season from about middle of November to February is followed by hot season from March to middle of June . The period from mid-June to the end of September is south-west Monsoon season .
Records of rainfall in the district are available for three stations,Fatehpur, Khajwa and Khaga for sufficient long Periods. The average annual rainfall in the district is 906.2mm.(35.68”) The rainfall varies from 870.3mm.(34.26”) at Fatehpur to 926.8mm.(36.49”) at Khaga. The highest rainfall 168% of the normal occurred in 1915 and lowest rainfall 60% of the normal occurred in 1918.
Max.Temp :45-48 Deg. C. During May and June
Min Temp: 3.0-8.6 Deg. C. During Dec and Jan